十九世纪破坏欧洲葡萄的叶绿肌基因组
The genome of the phylloxera that devastated European vines in the nineteenth century, deciphered

The genome of the phylloxera that devastated European vines in the nineteenth century, deciphered

十九世纪破坏欧洲葡萄的叶绿肌基因组

信贷: CC0 公开资产领域

Phylloxera的基因组是一种昆虫,在19世纪造成了对欧洲葡萄酒的破坏,由瓦伦西亚中心综合系统生物学研究所(I2SysBio)和CSIC的研究人员米克尔·巴伯(Miquel Barber)和戴维·马丁内斯(David Martnez)组成的一个国际小组对其进行了解析。该研究报告发表在BMC生物学杂志上。

这项工作证实,瘟疫来自北美,很可能来自密西西比河上游的野生人口。该研究的结论帮助重建了19世纪在欧洲葡萄园引发致命伤害的生物入侵,并推动了提高葡萄园生产力的战略。

2011年在法国国家农业研究所(农研所)的领导下,全世界8个国家的70多名专家组成了国际联合会,推动了新基因组的测序工作。这项工作还得到了INRAE - BIPAA平台的技术支持,该平台为获取与农业生态系统有关的昆虫的基因组资源提供了便利。

I2SysBio专家的工作重点是对与生物生物钟类型有关的一系列基因和性阶段的诱导进行注释。I2SysBio的研究员戴维·马内斯(David Martnez)是这篇文章的签名人之一,他说, “这些基因涉及摄影接收,也是候选基因,可以引发对某些环境变化的充分反应,从而改变生命周期。 ”Martnez和Miquel Barber都将其最后几年的研究致力于确定和描述与养蜂生物周期有关的基因,并在十年前对Acyrthosiphon pisum基因组的测序和出版作出了贡献。" Phylloxeras是与蜂窝有关的昆虫,与它们有着复杂的生命周期,可以与它们分享控制其生命周期的分子机制" 。因此, I2SysBio研究人员参与了破译phylloxera基因组的工作。

Phylloxera :从密西西比河岸到法国葡萄园

phylloxera(Daktulosphaira vitifoliae)是phylloxeridae家族的一个血友病昆虫,依靠它从葡萄根中获得的香肠。最初由美国昆虫学家Asa Fitch于1854年描述, 1863年在法国引起了一些最初的感染,直到1868年蒙彼利埃(世贸组织)霍尔特农业协会(Hrault Agricultural Society)的成员Bazille 、 Planchon和Sahut明确确认感染。

美国和欧洲之间紧张的葡萄藤贸易可能是该昆虫意外进入的大门,该昆虫不可阻挡地扩散到法国全境,受这一疾病和其他欧洲领土的影响最为严重。

拥有2 700多个基因的新基因组

对phylloxera核DNA基因组序列的分析显示,存在着以大约2 , 700个基因的基因组确定的最大基因群,其中200个基因群很少超标,占昆虫基因组的10% 。

这些基因可能对phylloxera和葡萄园之间的相互作用至关重要,它们为可能会导致植物基本防御功能失效的被称为"效果器"的小型秘密蛋白质编码。在原产地区的葡萄园中,植物和虫害之间的共生会使葡萄园对昆虫产生抵抗力。相比之下,欧洲种植的葡萄酒没有一个能够抵御新瘟疫及其致命的效应鸡尾酒威胁的防御系统。

发表的研究报告还证实,入侵欧洲的phylloxera来自一种野生的美国葡萄酒— —气管炎(Vitis)。

从基础研究到改进葡萄酒生产

从应用角度来看,新研究产生的基因组信息将有助于在葡萄栽培实践中进行基因改进。因此,更好地了解新的效应基因体系的演变和行动机制,将有助于设计通过对植物或寄生虫进行干预来阻止其行动的战略。

由国家提供

RUVID协会

The genome of the phylloxera, an insect that caused plagues that devastated European vines in the 19th century, has been deciphered by an international team involving researchers Miquel Barber and David Martnez, from the Institute for Integrative Systems Biology (I2SysBio), center of the University of Valencia, and the CSIC. The study is published in the journal BMC Biology.

The work confirms that the plague comes from North America and most likely from wild populations located along the upper reaches of the Mississippi River. The study's conclusions have helped reconstruct the biological invasion that unleashed deadly plagues on European vineyards in the 19th century, as well as advancing strategies to improve productivity in viticulture.

The sequencing of the new genome has been promoted by the international consortiummore than 70 experts from eight countries around the worldcreated in 2011 and led by the French National Institute of Agriculture (INRAE). The work also has the technical support of the INRAE-BIPAA platform, which has facilitated access to genomic resources on insects associated with agroecosystems.

The work of the I2SysBio experts has focused on the annotation of a series of genes related to the circadian rhythma type of biorhythmand to the induction of the sexual phase. "These are genes involved in photoreception, as well as candidate genes to trigger an adequate response to certain environmental changes that produce modifications in the life cycle," says David Martnez, researcher at I2SysBio and one of the signatories of the article. Both Martnez and Miquel Barber have dedicated their last years of research to identifying and characterizing genes related to the aphids' biological cycle, and contributed ten years ago to the sequencing and publication of the Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. "Phylloxeras are insects related to aphids and share a complex life cycle with them, with which they can share molecular mechanisms of control of their life cycles." Hence the participation of I2SysBio researchers in deciphering the phylloxera genome.

Phylloxera: from the banks of the Mississippi to the French vineyards

The phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) is a hemipteran insect of the phylloxeridae family that feeds on the sap that it obtains from the roots of vines. First described in 1854 by the entomologist Asa Fitch in the United States, it caused some initial outbreaks of infection in France in 1863 until it was definitively identified in 1868 by Bazille, Planchon and Sahut, members of the Hrault Agricultural Society in Montpellier.

The intense vine trade between the United States and Europe could have been the accidental entry door for the insect, which inexorably spread throughout Francethe country most affected by the plagueand other European territories.

A new gene family with more than 2,700 genes

Analysis of the genomic sequence of the phylloxera nuclear DNA reveals the existence of the largest gene family ever identified in a genomewith around 2,700 genes, when 200 are rarely exceededwhich would represent 10% of the insect's genome.

These genes, probably essential for interactions between the phylloxera and vines, encode the small secreted proteinsknown as effectorsthat could be involved in deactivating the plant's basic defenses. In the vines of the region of origin, the coevolution between plant and pest would have enabled the resistance of the vines to the insect. In contrast, vines grown in Europe did not have a defense system adapted to ward off the threat of the new plague and its lethal cocktail of effectors.

The published work also confirms that the phylloxera that invaded Europe comes from the Vitis riparia species, a wild type of American vine.

From basic research to the improvement of wine production

From an applied perspective, the genomic information from the new study will enable genetic improvement in viticulture practice. Thus, a better understanding of the evolution and mechanisms of action of the new family of effector genes will help design strategies that block their action through interventions on the plant or parasite.

Credit: CC0 Public Domain

信贷: CC0 公开资产领域

The genome of the phylloxera, an insect that caused plagues that devastated European vines in the 19th century, has been deciphered by an international team involving researchers Miquel Barber and David Martnez, from the Institute for Integrative Systems Biology (I2SysBio), center of the University of Valencia, and the CSIC. The study is published in the journal BMC Biology.

Phylloxera的基因组是一种昆虫,在19世纪造成了对欧洲葡萄酒的破坏,由瓦伦西亚中心综合系统生物学研究所(I2SysBio)和CSIC的研究人员米克尔·巴伯(Miquel Barber)和戴维·马丁内斯(David Martnez)组成的一个国际小组对其进行了解析。该研究报告发表在BMC生物学杂志上。

The work confirms that the plague comes from North America and most likely from wild populations located along the upper reaches of the Mississippi River. The study's conclusions have helped reconstruct the biological invasion that unleashed deadly plagues on European vineyards in the 19th century, as well as advancing strategies to improve productivity in viticulture.

这项工作证实,瘟疫来自北美,很可能来自密西西比河上游的野生人口。该研究的结论帮助重建了19世纪在欧洲葡萄园引发致命伤害的生物入侵,并推动了提高葡萄园生产力的战略。

The sequencing of the new genome has been promoted by the international consortiummore than 70 experts from eight countries around the worldcreated in 2011 and led by the French National Institute of Agriculture (INRAE). The work also has the technical support of the INRAE-BIPAA platform, which has facilitated access to genomic resources on insects associated with agroecosystems.

2011年在法国国家农业研究所(农研所)的领导下,全世界8个国家的70多名专家组成了国际联合会,推动了新基因组的测序工作。这项工作还得到了INRAE - BIPAA平台的技术支持,该平台为获取与农业生态系统有关的昆虫的基因组资源提供了便利。

The work of the I2SysBio experts has focused on the annotation of a series of genes related to the circadian rhythma type of biorhythmand to the induction of the sexual phase. "These are genes involved in photoreception, as well as candidate genes to trigger an adequate response to certain environmental changes that produce modifications in the life cycle," says David Martnez, researcher at I2SysBio and one of the signatories of the article. Both Martnez and Miquel Barber have dedicated their last years of research to identifying and characterizing genes related to the aphids' biological cycle, and contributed ten years ago to the sequencing and publication of the Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. "Phylloxeras are insects related to aphids and share a complex life cycle with them, with which they can share molecular mechanisms of control of their life cycles." Hence the participation of I2SysBio researchers in deciphering the phylloxera genome.

I2SysBio专家的工作重点是对与生物生物钟类型有关的一系列基因和性阶段的诱导进行注释。I2SysBio的研究员戴维·马内斯(David Martnez)是这篇文章的签名人之一,他说, “这些基因涉及摄影接收,也是候选基因,可以引发对某些环境变化的充分反应,从而改变生命周期。 ”Martnez和Miquel Barber都将其最后几年的研究致力于确定和描述与养蜂生物周期有关的基因,并在十年前对Acyrthosiphon pisum基因组的测序和出版作出了贡献。" Phylloxeras是与蜂窝有关的昆虫,与它们有着复杂的生命周期,可以与它们分享控制其生命周期的分子机制" 。因此, I2SysBio研究人员参与了破译phylloxera基因组的工作。

Phylloxera: from the banks of the Mississippi to the French vineyards

Phylloxera :从密西西比河岸到法国葡萄园

The phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) is a hemipteran insect of the phylloxeridae family that feeds on the sap that it obtains from the roots of vines. First described in 1854 by the entomologist Asa Fitch in the United States, it caused some initial outbreaks of infection in France in 1863 until it was definitively identified in 1868 by Bazille, Planchon and Sahut, members of the Hrault Agricultural Society in Montpellier.

phylloxera(Daktulosphaira vitifoliae)是phylloxeridae家族的一个血友病昆虫,依靠它从葡萄根中获得的香肠。最初由美国昆虫学家Asa Fitch于1854年描述, 1863年在法国引起了一些最初的感染,直到1868年蒙彼利埃(世贸组织)霍尔特农业协会(Hrault Agricultural Society)的成员Bazille 、 Planchon和Sahut明确确认感染。

The intense vine trade between the United States and Europe could have been the accidental entry door for the insect, which inexorably spread throughout Francethe country most affected by the plagueand other European territories.

美国和欧洲之间紧张的葡萄藤贸易可能是该昆虫意外进入的大门,该昆虫不可阻挡地扩散到法国全境,受这一疾病和其他欧洲领土的影响最为严重。

A new gene family with more than 2,700 genes

拥有2 700多个基因的新基因组

Analysis of the genomic sequence of the phylloxera nuclear DNA reveals the existence of the largest gene family ever identified in a genomewith around 2,700 genes, when 200 are rarely exceededwhich would represent 10% of the insect's genome.

对phylloxera核DNA基因组序列的分析显示,存在着以大约2 , 700个基因的基因组确定的最大基因群,其中200个基因群很少超标,占昆虫基因组的10% 。

These genes, probably essential for interactions between the phylloxera and vines, encode the small secreted proteinsknown as effectorsthat could be involved in deactivating the plant's basic defenses. In the vines of the region of origin, the coevolution between plant and pest would have enabled the resistance of the vines to the insect. In contrast, vines grown in Europe did not have a defense system adapted to ward off the threat of the new plague and its lethal cocktail of effectors.

这些基因可能对phylloxera和葡萄园之间的相互作用至关重要,它们为可能会导致植物基本防御功能失效的被称为"效果器"的小型秘密蛋白质编码。在原产地区的葡萄园中,植物和虫害之间的共生会使葡萄园对昆虫产生抵抗力。相比之下,欧洲种植的葡萄酒没有一个能够抵御新瘟疫及其致命的效应鸡尾酒威胁的防御系统。

The published work also confirms that the phylloxera that invaded Europe comes from the Vitis riparia species, a wild type of American vine.

发表的研究报告还证实,入侵欧洲的phylloxera来自一种野生的美国葡萄酒— —气管炎(Vitis)。

From basic research to the improvement of wine production

从基础研究到改进葡萄酒生产

From an applied perspective, the genomic information from the new study will enable genetic improvement in viticulture practice. Thus, a better understanding of the evolution and mechanisms of action of the new family of effector genes will help design strategies that block their action through interventions on the plant or parasite.

从应用角度来看,新研究产生的基因组信息将有助于在葡萄栽培实践中进行基因改进。因此,更好地了解新的效应基因体系的演变和行动机制,将有助于设计通过对植物或寄生虫进行干预来阻止其行动的战略。

Provided by

由国家提供

Asociacion RUVID

RUVID协会